Jeffrey W. Hedenquist conducted research with DSIR–Chemistry Division in New Zealand and the Geological Survey of Japan for 10 years each on geothermal energy development and volcanic discharges, respectively, as well as the formation of epithermal gold and porphyry copper deposits. Since 1999 he has been an independent advisor to the mineral industry, several governmental agencies, and the World Bank, providing assessments of hydrothermal gold and copper projects in over 40 countries, as well as training related to mineral exploration. His education includes Macalester College (BSc), The Johns Hopkins University (MA) and the University of Auckland (PhD).